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    The cited references to the opinions of many scientists are pertinent, because the relationship between the patient and the doctor can sometimes create the illusion that healing is, as it were, a completely private matter; such an involuntary delusion could have occurred in our country before the Great October Socialist Revolution and now exists in bourgeois states, while the knowledge and skill of a doctor is entirely of social origin, and a person's illness is usually caused by a way of lifeand the influence of various factors of a specific social environment; the physical environment is also largely socially conditioned.

    It is impossible not to recall the importance of the socialist worldview for medical practice and the understanding of illness and understanding of human illness. ON THE. Semashko (1928) wrote that the view of illness as a social phenomenon is important not only as a correct theoretical setting, but also as a fruitful working doctrine. The theory and practice of prevention have their scientific roots from this view.

  • Housing, food, working environment are social factors in origin

    This doctrine makes a doctor not a craftsman from a hammer and a tube, but a social worker: since a disease is a social phenomenon, then it is necessary to fight it not only with therapeutic, but also social and preventive measures. The social nature of the disease obliges the doctor to be a social activist.

    Socio-hygienic research proves the social conditionality of the state of people's health. Suffice it to recall the well-known work of F. Engels "The Condition of the Working Class in England" (1845) 2. With the help of biomedical analysis, the mechanism of action of environmental factors (climate, nutrition, etc.) on biological processes in the body is established. However, one should not forget about the connection and unity of social and biological conditions of human life.

biological in terms of the mechanism of influence on the anatomical and physiological characteristics of a person

The higher the socio-economic level of modern society, the more efficient is the organization of the environment for the conditions of human life (even in space). Therefore, both biologism and abstract sociologism in solving problems of medicine are metaphysical and unscientific. In the listed facts, one can notice the decisive importance in understanding the theory of medicine and health care, the general worldview, taking into account the socio-economic foundations, the class approach.

Description of diseases in ancient times and modern terminology. Practical experience of doctors has been accumulated over several millennia. It may be recalled that the activity of ancient doctors was carried out on the basis of the great experience of their predecessors. In 60 books of Hippocrates, in which, apparently, the works of his students were also reflected, a significant number of names of internal diseases were discovered, which, it was assumed, were quite familiar to the reader.

Before the activities of Hippocrates and his school, doctors distinguished at least 50 manifestations of internal pathology. A rather long enumeration of various morbid conditions and, accordingly, different designations is given in order to more specifically represent the great successes of observations, albeit primitive, of doctors of ancient civilizations - more than 2500 years ago. It is useful to realize this and thus be attentive to the hard work of our predecessors.

The position of medicine in society. The concern of people for the treatment of wounds and diseases has always existed and achieved some success in varying degrees in connection with the development of society and culture. In the most ancient civilizations - for 2-3 thousand years BC. - there were already some legislation regulating medical practice, for example, the Hammurabi code, etc.

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Quite detailed information about ancient medicine was found in the papyri of Ancient Egypt. The papyri of Eberts and Edwin Smith provided a summary of medical knowledge. A narrow specialization was characteristic of the medicine of Ancient Egypt, there were separate healers for the treatment of lesions of the eyes, teeth, head, stomach, as well as the treatment of invisible diseases (!) (Perhaps they refer to internal pathology?). This extreme specialization is considered one of the reasons that delayed the progress of medicine in Egypt.

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In ancient India, along with many empirical advances in medicine, surgery reached a particularly high level (removal of cataracts, removal of stones from the bladder, plastic surgery of the face, etc.); the position of healers seems to have always been honorable. In Ancient Babylon (according to the Hammurabi code) there was a high specialization, and there were also public schools of healers. Ancient China had extensive experience in healing; the Chinese were the first pharmacologists in the world, they havepaid great attention to disease prevention, believing that a real doctor is not the one who treats the sick person, but the one who prevents the disease; their healers distinguished about 200 types of pulse, 26 of them to determine the prognosis.

At the beginning of European civilization, since the ancient period of Ancient Greece, together with the exclusion of religious views on diseases, medicine received the highest praise. This was evidenced by the statement of the playwright Aeschylus (525–456) in the tragedy "Prometheus", in which Prometheus's main feat was in teaching people to provide medical assistance.

Repeated devastating epidemics such as the plague have at times paralyzed the population with fear of "divine punishment." "In ancient times, medicine, apparently, was so high and its benefits are so obvious that the art of medicine was included in the religious cult, was the affiliation of the deity" (Botkin SP, ed. 1912).

In parallel with temple medicine, there were medical schools of fairly high qualifications (Kos, Knids schools), whose help was especially evident in the treatment of injured or wounded people.

  • The position of medicine and medical care, in particular during the era of Roman rule, was very low. Rome was inundated with many self-appointed healers, often swindlers, and prominent scholars of the time, such as Pliny the Elder, called doctors the poisoners of the Roman people. We must pay tribute to the state organization of Rome in attempts to improve hygienic conditions (the famous water pipes of Rome, Maximus cesspool, etc.).

  • The Middle Ages in Europe essentially gave nothing for the theory and practice of medicine. In addition, it should be noted that the preaching of asceticism, contempt for the body, caring mainly for the spirit could not contribute to the development of medical methods, with the exception of the opening of separate nursing homes for the sick and the publication of rare books about medicinal plants, for example, the book of the 11th century by M. Floridus " On the properties of herbs "3.

  • The mastering of medical knowledge, like any education, corresponded to the generally accepted scholastic method. Medical students were required to study logic for the first 3 years, then books by canonized authors; medical practice was not in the curriculum. Such a situation, for example, was even officially established in the 13th century and later.

  • At the beginning of the Renaissance, there were few changes in studies compared with the Middle Ages, classes were almost exclusively book; scholasticism, endless abstract verbal intricacies overwhelmed the heads of students.